The beginning of the town (500-999)
Settlements existed in Litomerice long before the royal town was formally founded in 1219. The terraced Elbe river valley was already an attractive location in the Neolithic period (4500-3600A.D.). Later the area was settled by Celtic and Germanic tribes and then the Slavs came into the area at the end of the Migration Period. The earliest evidence of the Slavic settlement comes from the 8th century. Settlements were quite isolated from each other which led to the formation of tribes and families.
In the 9th and 10th century Litomerice fell under the control of the Premyslid family. Litomercie was the residence of a Premyslid management office which was used by the Duke to control the surrounding area. They built an early medieval fortress on top of Dome hill. The fortress became one of the most significant Premyslid centres in the Czech lands.
Chapter foundation and the Middle Ages (1000-1299)
A Litomerice Charter was founded by Spytihnev II, Duke of Bohemia in 1057. Archeological discoveries prove that the area was widely settled in the 9th and even more so in the 10th – 12th centuries. The village Litomerice was mentioned for the first and last time in 1228. However, it was not just a simple farming village, it was a place which developed into a significant High Medieval Period town.
By the beginning of the 13th century Litomerice was an important political, cultural and economic centre. Litomerice became a formal town in 1219 when Ottokar I, the Duke of Bohemia granted Litomerce town privileges (market rights, brewing rights, etc.). He also built one of the largest squares in Bohemia. At that time Franciscan and Dominican Orders grew steadily in Litomerice as did the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star. Commerce in the town consisted of many different craftsmen, transport on the Elbe river and the growing of grapes for wine.
For more information about the Usti Region where this place is located click here.